User Guides

Standard Setting

User Guides
Standard Setting

Standard setting is a process used in educational assessment and testing to determine the minimum level of performance required to pass an exam or achieve a specific score or grade. It involves establishing the cut-off point or passing score that differentiates between those who meet the proficiency criteria and those who do not.

Practical methods for standard setting include:

  1. Angoff Method: In this approach, a panel of subject matter experts evaluates each test item and estimates the probability that a "minimally competent" examinee would answer it correctly. The average of these ratings determines the passing score.

  2. Bookmark Method: Examinees' test scores are analyzed to identify a point on the score scale that separates those who are "proficient" from those who are "non-proficient."

  3. Contrastive Groups Method: Two or more groups with different levels of proficiency are compared, and the passing score is set at the point where the performance difference between the groups is considered meaningful.

  4. Borderline Group Method: A panel of experts reviews the performance of borderline examinees who are close to the passing score and makes decisions based on their characteristics.

  5. Modified-Angoff Method: Similar to the Angoff method, but it involves group discussions and adjustments to the ratings based on group consensus.

  6. Ebel Method: Item statistics are used to identify the difficulty level of each test item, and a passing score is set based on the cumulative item difficulty.

  7. Contrastive-T Groups Method: Similar to the contrastive groups method, but it uses "T groups" that represent typical examinees, rather than contrastive groups.

  8. Extended Angoff Method: This method combines the Angoff approach with a follow-up review session, allowing experts to discuss and revise their initial judgments.

The choice of standard setting method depends on the context, the nature of the exam, available resources, and the expertise of the individuals involved in the process. Each method has its strengths and limitations, and careful consideration is required to ensure a fair and valid standard is set for the assessment

Item Analysis

User Guides
Item Analysis

Item analysis is a statistical technique used in educational and psychological testing to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of individual test items (questions). Its primary purpose is to assess how well each test item discriminates between individuals who possess the attribute being measured (e.g., knowledge, ability, or trait) and those who do not.

The main goals of item analysis include:

  1. Item Difficulty: Item difficulty refers to how many test-takers answered a particular item correctly. This helps test developers understand whether the item is too easy, too difficult, or of an appropriate level of difficulty for the target population.

  2. Item Discrimination: Item discrimination measures how well a particular item differentiates between high-performing individuals and low-performing individuals. It identifies how effective the item is at distinguishing between those who possess the attribute being tested and those who do not.

  3. Item Reliability: Item reliability indicates the consistency of an item's performance across different groups of test-takers. Items with high reliability produce consistent results across different administrations of the test.

By conducting item analysis, test developers can identify problematic items that need revision or elimination from the test, improve the overall test quality, and enhance the test's ability to measure the intended construct accurately.

Item analysis is often performed using various statistical methods, such as the point-biserial correlation, item-total correlation, and the calculation of item difficulty indices (e.g., p-value, percent-correct). These analyses help researchers and educators to refine the test and ensure its validity and reliability.

Privacy Policy

Privacy Policy

Last updated: 1 Aug 2023

This Privacy Policy describes how [Rubritic] ("we," "us," "our") collects, uses, and shares personal information when you visit [] (the "Website").

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